Research Briefing, November 2016

blogimage_researchbriefingEach month, there is new, fascinating research emerging that provides practical insight into the intersector — the space where collaboration among government, business, and non-profit sectors enables leaders to share expertise, resources, and authority to address society’s most pressing problems. To keep our readers up to date, we compile a monthly briefing that captures the newest research, and publish it on our blog, for researchers who want to stay up-to-date on progress in the field of cross-sector collaboration and practitioners who are interested in how this research may be applicable to their work.

This month’s briefing includes articles about:

  • the relationship between participant diversity and perceptions of procedural justice,
  • food insecurity in Orange County,
  • power imbalances in faith-based cross-sector partnerships,
  • crowd source financing for public-private partnerships,
  • the need for public-private collaboration for cybersecurity,
  • and the use of P3s for infrastructure in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar.

Linking Diversity of Collaborative Policymaking Venues with Procedural Justice Perceptions: A Study of U.S. Marine Aquaculture Partnerships,” The American Review of Public Administration, Jangmin Kim and Saba Sidikki

Abstract: “Diversity has long been recognized as a critical component of collaborative governance. Among many rationales, the representation of diverse perspectives and participants in collaborative governance arrangements is expected to facilitate holistic understandings of complex public policy and management issues while promoting principles of democracy and inclusion. Such outcomes, however, are typically only achievable if the process of collaboration similarly engenders these principles. In this article, we investigate the dynamic relationship between diversity and perceived procedural justice in the context of 10 collaborative policymaking groups involved in guiding U.S. marine aquaculture policy development. Among our key findings is that certain types of participant diversity (i.e., affiliation and intergovernmental diversity) and diversity in beliefs about science and local knowledge are significantly associated with perceptions of procedural justice among participants within the collaborative groups. We also find that the relationship between participant diversity and perceived procedural justice is curvilinear; the positive effect of diversity is highest when the level of diversity is moderate (an inverted U-shaped pattern). We conclude our article with practical implications and suggestions for future research on procedural justice within collaborative partnerships.”

A Public-Private Partnership to Mitigate Food Insecurity and Food Waste in Orange County, California,” American Journal of Public Health, Bernadet Garcia-Silva, Eric Handler, and Julia Wolfe

Abstract: “Food insecurity is a global issue that arises owing to systemic socioeconomic inequities and environmental constraints. To highlight the existence and the extent of food insecurity and food waste, the Orange County Health Department in Orange County, California, created a coalition called ‘Waste Not Orange County.’ Orange County is the sixth most populous county in California and has the highest median income, yet 11.4% of those residing in Orange County are food insecure, and 24.0% live in poverty. The overall vision of the coalition is to mitigate hunger in Orange County by educating the community about food donations, identifying food-insecure individuals, and connecting those individuals to sources of food. We examine the coalition’s impacts between 2014 and 2016.

David and Goliath: dismantling inequalities within faith-based cross-sector partnerships,” Development in Practice, Tonya Sanders

Abstract: “This article reports on a research project that explored the internal dynamics of a faith-based and cross-sector partnership when different levels of organisational resources and capacity exist. A case of a three-way partnership between a faith-based, a for-profit, and a non-profit organisation is analysed. Through participant observation, interviews, and an examination of secondary data using grounded theory and the constant comparison method of analysis, an assessment of how resources impacts partnership structure, agenda/goal setting, roles, and responsibilities are highlighted and framed to demonstrate the inequalities in partnership outcomes. Furthermore, a framework for how to infuse structural equality into these partnerships is discussed.”

Crowd Source Financing for Public-Private Partnerships in the United States: How Would it Work?,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Morteza Farajian and Brian Ross

Abstract: “The public–private partnership (PPP) model remains a tool that can facilitate private investment to partially resolve the significant funding need to respond to aging infrastructure in the United States. However, the current PPP model does not allow for broad-based public equity investment in PPP projects. The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act in 2012 has led to a rapidly changing legislative and regulatory environment, which enables new ventures to raise equity and debt investment. This new form of investment crowdfunding, or crowd financing, provides flexibility for start-ups to raise low-cost capital from supporters of their project or business. This flexibility also can be used to enhance the PPP model. Given the approach’s novelty and its potential impact on taxpayers, it requires a comprehensive look. This paper introduces an implementation framework for the PPP crowd-financing model and builds on an earlier paper that provided a policy review of the model, with an analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This paper also highlights similarities between crowd-financing models that are being implemented in the real estate industry and their applications to PPPs and then describes the current regulatory framework for crowd financing. An outline is provided to show how crowd financing can be implemented for PPPs during procurement, including a discussion of investment types, U.S. Security Exchange Commission exemptions, and crowd financing–platform interaction.”

A Typology of Cybersecurity and Public-Private Partnerships in the Context of the EU,” Crime, Law, and Social Change, Raphael Bossong and Ben Wagner

Abstract: “Current discussions on security on the Internet mostly revolve around the necessity and limits of public action in the face of a decentralised and privately owned or operated space. Unsurprisingly, the question of public authority particularly comes to the fore in matters of security. The original vision of an entirely self-regulated as well as resilient, decentralised Internet has come under severe stress due to structural vulnerabilities beyond the reach of any individual actor. These vulnerabilities are increasingly exploited by a growing number of harmful actors, which are also increasingly putting their services and malware products on sale and wide access. This calls for more multi-faced and coordinated governance approaches to improve security on the Internet that is typically termed ‘cybersecurity.’ In short, to provide cybersecurity public and private actors clearly need to engage with each other. This is reflected in a growing number of policy initiatives and public declarations that underline the value of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) for increasing or providing cybersecurity. Such partnerships are also critical site to translate broad or ambiguous conception of cybersecurity, which may have reinforced the trend towards an ever more encompassing securitisation of contemporary Western societies, into daily practices.”

Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar: Meanings, Rationales, Projects, and the Path Forward,” Public Works Management & Policy, Mhamed Biygautane

Abstract: “This article explores the experiences of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar with infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), and offers new insights into the development of the PPP phenomenon outside of the Western context. It analyzes their approaches to PPPs, including policy frameworks, the rationales for their implementation, and presents a critical examination of PPP projects’ development to date. In contrast to the international trend where PPPs have been used for the objectives of overcoming financial constraints or delivering public infrastructure efficiently, it is argued that PPPs in the three Gulf states are in their infancy, and their use has been restricted to sectors where the governments cannot deliver important projects. The article concludes by identifying the three Gulf states’ future directions in the use of infrastructure PPPs to deliver a broader spectrum of mega-infrastructure projects, particularly in light of dwindling oil revenues.”