The Bethlehem Steel Plant closed in 1995, leaving an abandoned 1,800-acre industrial site comprising 25 percent of Bethlehem’s land. The country’s largest privately owned Brownfield – a site that had been used for industrial purposes that can be used once hazardous waste or pollution is cleared – redevelopment presented the City of Bethlehem with a challenging opportunity. The plant was located in Bethlehem’s SouthSide, a neighborhood with a median household income of $23,000, where 28 percent of the residents live below the poverty line and 63 percent are from minority groups. As part of the overall Bethlehem Steel Plant redevelopment project, the city worked with Bethlehem Steel and several investors to develop a plan to convert a 135-acre plot for both commercial and cultural use, a development site known as Bethlehem Works. When the first plan, anchored around an industrial museum, failed to generate strong interest, former director of Bethlehem city’s Community and Economic Development department Tony Hanna, along with Mayor John Callahan and others, proposed a partnership with casino conglomerate Las Vegas Sands, a local arts NGO, and the Department of Community and Economic Development to plan and design the site to feature a casino, conference center, hotel, outlet mall, and a new arts and cultural center. The casino and its environs generate new revenue and provide jobs, while the SteelStacks arts and cultural center offers modern, cultural programming together with community education and outreach initiatives.